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Learning, Teaching, Performing


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England v Wales Rugby Union Matches 1987-1992

Introduction

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, I used real-time hand notation to record performance in international rugby union games. In the 1980s I used live BBC television broadcasts, in the 1990s I had the good fortune to attend many of the games as a notational analyst.

One of my interests in that period (after playing rugby at Loughborough College, London Welsh and Rosslyn Park) was to provide some evidence about game content and game time, particularly ball in play time, in order to support the coaching of expansive rugby. I was interested specifically in kicking, passing, set piece play and stoppages for injury as indicators of the flow of activity in games.

The most comprehensive set of data I have from that period is the competition between England and Wales 1987 to 1992 inclusive.

Game Content

In these games, the totals for the activities I was monitoring were:

Year

Kicks

Passes

Lineouts

Scrums

Pens/FKs Conceded

Stoppages for Injury

1987

108

68

53

28

39

10

1988

94

183

64

27

25

15

1989

122

102

46

51

20

7

1990

84

196

40

27

24

10

1991

114

131

54

34

28

3

1992

77

182

35

39

36

12

The odd year games were played in Cardiff and the even year games at Twickenham. Wales won the games in 1987, 1988 and 1989. England won in 1990, 1991 and 1992. Three of the games were affected by rain (1987, 1989, 1992) and there were strong winds in the 1990 game.

Ball in Play Time

For the ball in play time I started my stopwatch at the kick off and stopped it on the referree’s whistle or when the ball had clearly left the field of play. I recorded time in minutes (m) and seconds (s).

Year First Half Second Half Game Total

1987

7m 32s

9m 24s

16m 57s

1988

13m 43s

12m 28s

26m 11s

1989

11m 08s

11m 25s

22m 33s

1990

10m 38s

14m 11s

24m 49s

1991

11m 36s

10m 59s

22m 35s

1992

11m 14s

14m 51s

26m 05s

These total ball in play times as a percentage of total game time were:

Year

Ball in Play (BiP)

Elapsed Time (ET)

Percentage of Game BiP

1987

16m 57s

83m 45s

20.24

1988

26m 11s

88m 35s

29.56

1989

22m 33s

85m 40s

26.32

1990

24m 49s

82m 29s

30.09

1991

22m 35s

83m 30s

27.05

1992

26m 05s

89m 12s

29.24

Activity Cycles

In the 1992 game at Twickenham there were 120 activity cycles (defined as play between the referee’s whistles or the start of action without a whistle when the ball was introduced into play, for example, a scrum). Their durations of these cycles were:

Duration of Cycle in Seconds

First Half Activity Cycles

Second Half Activity Cycles

Game Total Activity Cycles

As a Percentage of all Activity Cycles in the Game (n=120)

0-4

23

16

39

32.5

5-8

9

9

18

15

9-14

12

10

22

18.33

15-19

6

6

12

10

20-24

2

7

9

7.5

25-29

4

4

8

6.67

30-39

4

5

9

7.5

40+

1

2

3

2.5

My hand notations for the 1992 game are:

Notation

A PDF copy of this hand notation Actions

and Activity Cycles:

AC

A Pdf copy of the notation ACEW.

Methodological Note

3423912577_378c200b4a_oThe data presented here are from real-time hand notation. I had been doing hand notation in rugby union since 1980 and by the mid-1980s had established a stable set of game events to notate on a single sheet of landscape A4 paper.I used one sheet per half of the game. The example shared here from 1992 is a transcription of two halves onto one summary sheet. I made a separate record of activity cycles and they are transcribed onto a single sheet here too. In all games I had two stop watches running, one for total game time and the second for ball in play.

During this period I was keen to profile teams in terms of two ratios:

  • kicks: passes
  • lineouts: scrums

I was very keen to identify those teams that played rugby handball more than rugby football.

I was mindful of the literature on systematic observation in educational studies and physical education and sport. I was a trained observer and was confident that my observations were valid and reliable. My aim was to provide real-time information to coaches if required.

I did not undertake any intra- or inter observer reliability studies of the data presented here.  I was aware of Paul Croll’s (1986: 154) argument that:

Stability of observations depends primarily not on characteristics of the observer or observation system but on the naturally occurring patterns of whatever is being observed … It seems unsatisfactory that an observation procedure that provides a highly accurate description of classroom events should be described as unreliable. In some cases the extent to which a characteristic is a stable feature of individuals and the extent to which it varies for different people may be of interest to the researcher and is itself a focus of analysis rather than a constraint upon whether the data are sufficiently reliable. (Systematic Classroom Observation. Lewes: The Falmer Press.)

In 1987, the ball was in play for less than 21% of the total game time. Given the relatively small number of game events I was monitoring there was ample time to record events. I was very aware that using a temporal measure required close attention to accuracy in starting and stopping the stopwatch. I was aware of the potential of mathematical error of using stopwatches. I used new batteries for each game recorded and prior to all games compared the performance of watches.

Throughout my real-time notation I was conscious of observer drift. No game lasted longer than ninety minutes and no half of a game was longer than 48 minutes. I used breaks in play and half time to refocus my attention. Real-time hand notation does require concentration and as a trained observer I felt comfortable with the cognitive load of the activity. I had clear operational definitions for all items to be notated and had made a very conscious decision not to try to capture granular details in real-time. With improvements in video technology in the late 1980s and 1990s I was able to undertake detailed lapsed-time analysis of performance for research purposes.

Conclusion

This post presents some of the data I captured in real-time twenty years ago. My overall aim was to develop a notation system that might offer decision support to coaches within games and subsequent opportunities to reflect on performance. During the period discussed here I immersed myself in the literature on observation. I was fortunate that at that time I was researching and writing Using Video in Sport (1988. Huddersfield: National Coaching Foundation) and completing a PhD that used ethnographic methods to record observations.

There is a story within a story here. By coincidence the data presented chart the rise of the England rugby team. In 1987 Wales defeated England in the 3rd/4th play off game at the inaugural World Cup. In 1991, England won in Cardiff for the first time since 1963 (there had been a draw in 1983) and at the end of the year contested the World Cup final against Australia at Twickenham.

Photo Credit

The National Stadium Cardiff (Walt Jebsco, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)


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Rugby Union Six Nations’ Tournament 2012: Winning Performances

This year’s Rugby Union Six Nations’ Tournament started on 4 February 2012.

The official website for the tournament is provided by RBS. The site provides detailed match data and video highlights.

The International Rugby Board (IRB) rankings (30 January 2012) of the teams (France, England, Ireland,Wales, Scotland, Italy) in the Tournament  were:

Fifteen games have been played in the 2012 Tournament.

Home Advantage

There have been eight home wins, six away wins and one draw.

Away Wins

England v Scotland, Wales v Ireland, England v Italy, Wales v England, France v Scotland, England v France. (Away team winner in bold.)

Draw

France v Ireland

Performance Against IRB Ranking

The higher IRB ranked team has won nine games out of the fifteen games played.

Exceptions

Wales (IRB ranking 8) defeated Ireland (IRB Ranking 6).

Wales (IRB ranking 8) defeated England (IRB Ranking 5).

France (IRB Ranking 3) drew with Ireland (IRB Ranking 6)

England (IRB Ranking 5) defeated France (IRB Ranking 3)

Wales (IRB Ranking 8) defeated France (IRB Ranking 3)

Italy (IRB ranking 12 ) defeated Scotland (IRB Ranking 10)

Scoring the First Converted Try

The team scoring the first converted try has won 11 games out of the 15 games played.

Exceptions

Ireland scored the first converted try and lost v Wales. Italy scored the first converted try and lost v England. Scotland scored the first converted try and lost v France. Ireland scored the first converted try and drew with France.

Try Scoring

The team scoring more tries has won 12 out of the 15 games played.

Exceptions

Italy scored two tries to England’s one and lost.

Scotland and France scored two tries each in their game.

Ireland scored two tries to France’s one and drew.

Converted Tries

The teams scoring more converted tries has won 11 out of 15 games played.

Exceptions

Wales converted 1 of 3 tries against Ireland (1 conversion out of 2 tries).

England converted the 1 try they scored against Italy (1 conversion out of 2 tries).

Scotland and France scored two converted tries each in their game.

Ireland scored two converted tries against France and drew.

Discipline

Round 1

France (7 penalties and 0 free kicks conceded) defeated Italy (6 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

England (9 penalties and 2 free kicks conceded) defeated Scotland (9 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

Wales (7 penalties and 1 free kick conceded) defeated Ireland (6 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

Round 2

England (9 penalties and 0 free kicks conceded) defeated Italy (10 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

Wales (13 penalties and 2 free kicks conceded) defeated Scotland (9 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

France (4 penalties and 1 free kick conceded) drew with Ireland (11 penalties and 2 free kicks conceded)

Round 3

Wales (12 penalties and 1 free kick conceded) defeated England (13 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

Ireland (11 penalties and 0 free kicks conceded) defeated Italy (12 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

France (5 penalties and 3 free kicks conceded) defeated Scotland (10 penalties and 3 free kicks conceded).

Round 4

Wales (13 penalties and 2 free kicks conceded) defeated Italy (12 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

Ireland (14 penalties and 2 free kicks conceded) defeated Scotland (11 penalties and 0 free kicks conceded).

England (11 penalties and 2 free kicks conceded) defeated France (4 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

Round 5

England (6 penalties and 1 free kick conceded) defeated Ireland (12 penalties and 0 free kicks conceded).

Italy (9 penalties and 3 free kicks conceded) defeated Scotland (13 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

Wales (10 penalties and 2 free kicks conceded) defeated France (13 penalties and 1 free kick conceded).

Winning Performances

In the 2012 Tournament:

The higher IRB ranked team scores the first converted try, is leading at half time and wins (France v Italy, Ireland v Italy, Ireland v Scotland).

The higher IRB ranked team does not score the first converted try is drawing at half time, and wins (France v Scotland).

The higher IRB ranked team is leading at half time, no tries scored, scores the first converted try of the second half and wins (Wales v Italy, England v Ireland).

The higher IRB ranked team is drawing at half time, no tries scored, concedes the only converted try of the second half and loses (Scotland v Italy).

The higher IRB ranked team is drawing at half time, no tries scored, scores the first converted try of the second half and wins (Wales v Scotland).

The higher IRB ranked team scores the first converted try, is leading at half time and loses (Ireland v Wales).

The higher IRB ranked team is leading at half time, no tries scored, conceded the only converted try of the game in the second half and loses (England v Wales).

The higher IRB ranked team is losing at half time, no tries are scored in the first half, scores the first (and only) converted try of the second half and wins (England v Scotland).

The higher ranked IRB team is losing at half time (the lower ranked team scores the only converted try of the game in the first half) and loses (France v Wales).

The higher ranked IRB team is losing at half time (the lower ranked team scores two converted tries in the first half) and draws (France v Ireland).

The higher ranked IRB team is losing at half time (the lower ranked team scores two tries (one converted) in the first half) and wins (England v Italy).

Coming From Behind To Win

In the 2012 Tournament teams have overcome these deficits to win:

10 France v Scotland (Round 3)

9 England v Italy (Round 2)

8 Wales v Ireland (Round 1)

6 Wales v England (Round 3)

6 Ireland v Scotland (Round 4)

3 England v Scotland (Round 1), Ireland v Italy (Round 3)

To draw

11 France v Ireland (Round 2)

Photo Credits

Italia v Scozia

O’Gara Try


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RWC2011: Winning Performances

The 2011 Rugby World Cup (RWC 2011) concluded on 23 October.

A total of 48 Games were played in the Tournament (40 Pool Games, 8 Knockout Games).

In the 48 games played:

  • The highest winning margin was 87 points (South Africa v Namibia)
  • The higher IRB ranked team won 43 out of the 48 games played.
  • Four lower ranked team won: Canada (14) defeated Tonga (12); Ireland (8) defeated Australia (2); Argentina (9) defeated Scotland (7); Tonga (12) defeated France (4).
  • There was one drawn game Japan (13) drew with Canada (14).
  • The higher ranked team scored the first converted try, was leading at half time and won on 28 occasions in 48 games played.
  • 261 tries were scored (116 in the first half, 145 in the second half).

Detailed information about the Group Games can be found here and the Knockout Games here.

Data from the Tournament can be found at the official RWC2011 website.

Photo Credit

15/10/2011


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RWC2011: Knockout Games

The 2011 Rugby World Cup (RWC 2011) Knockout Stage commenced on 8 October and concluded on 23 October.

Eight teams progressed to the Knockout Stage in the Tournament. The IRB Rankings (5 September 2011) of these teams were: New Zealand (1);  Australia (2); South Africa (3); France (4); England (5); Wales (6); Ireland (8); Argentina (9).

Winners

The higher IRB ranked team has won 8 games out of the 8 games played (Wales (6) defeated Ireland (8); France (4) defeated England (5); Australia (2) defeated South Africa (3); New Zealand (1) defeated Argentina (9); France (4) defeated Wales (6); New Zealand (1) defeated Australia (2); Australia (2) defeated Wales (6); New Zealand (1) defeated France (4)).

Wales scored the first converted try, were leading at half time and won (defeated Ireland).

France scored the first try, were leading at half time and won (defeated England). France were leading at half time and won the game (against Wales) and did not score a try (Wales scored the only try of the game in the second half).

Australia scored the first (and only try of the game), were leading at half time and won (defeated South Africa). Australia scored the first converted try of the game, were leading at half time and won (defeated Wales).

New Zealand did not score the first converted try, did not score a try in the first half but were winning at half time and won the game (defeated Argentina). New Zealand scored the only try of the game in the first half, were leading at half time and won the game (against Australia). New Zealand scored the first try, were winning at half time and won the game (defeated France).

Winning Margins

23 New Zealand v Argentina

13 New Zealand v Australia

12 Wales v Ireland

7 France v England

3 Australia v Wales

2 Australia v South Africa

1 France v Wales

1 New Zealand v France

Tries Scored

20 tries have been scored in 8 games played. The try scorers were:

First Half (8 tries scored)

02:25 Shane Williams (Wales v Ireland)

05:39 Ma’a Nonu (New Zealand v Australia)

10:56 James Horwill (Australia v South Africa)

11:21 Berrick Barnes (Australia v Wales)

14:12 Tony Woodcock (New Zealand v France)

21:32 Vincent Clerc (France v England)

30:07 Maxime Médard (France v England)

30:12 Julio Farias Cabello (Argentina v New Zealand)

Second Half (12 tries scored)

44:20 Keith Earls (Ireland v Wales)

46:51 Thierry Dusautoir (France v New Zealand)

48:50 Shane Williams (Wales v Australia)

50:51 Mike Phillips (Wales v Ireland)

54:30 Ben Foden (England v France)

58:02 Mike Phillips (Wales v France)

63:42 Jonathan Davies (Wales v Ireland)

66:22 Kieran Read (New Zealand v Argentina)

75:39 Ben McCalman (Australia v Wales)

76:37 Mark Cueto (England v France)

76:54 Brad Thorn (New Zealand v Argentina)

82:45 Leigh Halfpenny (Wales v Australia)

Referees

Craig Joubert (Ireland v Wales, Australia v New Zealand, France v New Zealand)

Steve Walsh (England v France)

Bryce Lawrence (South Africa v Australia)

Nigel Owens (New Zealand v Argentina)

Alain Roland (Wales v France)

Wayne Barnes (Wales v Australia)

Photo Credit

Matfield’s Ball

Kickoff Sunset


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RWC2011: Group Games

The 2011 Rugby World Cup (RWC 2011) Group Stage concluded on 2 October.

A total of 40 Games were played in four pools. Eight teams progressed to the Knockout Stage in the Tournament. The IRB Rankings (5 September 2011) of these teams were: New Zealand (1);  Australia (2); South Africa (3); France (4); England (5); Wales (6); Ireland (8); Argentina (9).

Scotland (7) were the only highly ranked team not to progress.

In the 40 games played:

  • The highest winning margin was 87 points (South Africa v Namibia)
  • The higher IRB ranked team won 35 out of the 40 games played.
  • Four lower ranked team won: Canada (14) defeated Tonga (12); Ireland (8) defeated Australia (2); Argentina (9) defeated Scotland (7); Tonga (12) defeated France (4).
  • There was one drawn game Japan (13) drew with Canada (14).
  • The higher ranked team scored the first converted try, was leading at half time and won on 26 occasions in 40 games played.
  • 241 tries were scored (108 first half, 133 second half).
  • 1o referees officiated in four games each.

Detailed information about the Group Games can be found here.

Photo Credits

France v Tonga

NZ v Canada

Both photographs were taken by Stewart Baird.


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RWC 2011: Winning Performance Group Games

The 2011 Rugby World Cup (RWC 2011) kicked off in New Zealand on 9 September at Eden Park, Auckland.

Information about the tournament can be found at the official website.

The opening game was New Zealand v Tonga.

This blog post records winning performance in the group games.

IRB Ranking

The IRB Rankings (5 September) of the teams in the tournament are:

  • New Zealand (1)
  • Australia (2)
  • South Africa (3)
  • France (4)
  • England (5)
  • Wales (6)
  • Scotland (7)
  • Ireland (8)
  • Argentina (9)
  • Samoa (10)
  • Italy (11)
  • Tonga (12)
  • Japan (13)
  • Canada (14)
  • Fiji (15)
  • Georgia (16)
  • Romania (17)
  • USA (18)
  • Russia (19)
  • Namibia (20)

Game Outcome and IRB Ranking

The higher IRB ranked team has won 35 out of the 40 games played. The exceptions are four lower ranked team wins: Canada (ranked 14th) defeated Tonga (ranked 12th); Ireland (ranked 8th) defeated Australia (ranked 2nd); Argentina (ranked 9th) defeated Scotland (ranked 7th); Tonga (ranked 12th) defeated France (ranked 4th). There was one drawn game Japan (ranked 13th) drew with Canada (ranked 14th).

Winning Margin

(Winning team in bold)

87 South Africa v Namibia

76 New Zealand v Japan

74 Wales v Namibia

66 Wales v Fiji

64 England v Georgia, New Zealand v Canada

62 Australia v USA

50 Ireland v Russia

46 South Africa v Fiji, Australia v Russia

37 Samoa v Namibia

36 Italy v Romania

35 Argentina v Romania

31 New Zealand v Tonga, England v Georgia

30 Ireland v Italy

27 France v Canada

26 France v Japan, Australia v Italy

24 Fiji v Namibia

20 New Zealand v France, Samoa v Fiji

18 Argentina v Georgia

17 Italy v USA

16 Georgia v Romania

13 Tonga v Japan

12 Ireland v USA

10 Scotland v Romania

9 Scotland v Georgia, Ireland v Australia

8 South Africa v Samoa

7 USA v Russia, Wales v Samoa

5 Canada v Tonga, Tonga v France

4 England v Argentina, England v Scotland

1 South Africa v Wales, Argentina v Scotland

0 Canada v Japan

Winning Performance: Scoring Profile

The higher ranked team scored the first converted try, was leading at half time and won on 26 occasions in 40 games played (New Zealand v Tonga, Scotland v Romania, France v Japan, Fiji v Namibia, Ireland v USA, South Africa v Wales, Samoa v Namibia, USA v Russia, New Zealand v Japan, Argentina v Romania, South Africa v Fiji, England v Georgia, France v Canada, Tonga v Japan, New Zealand v France, England v Romania, Italy v Russia, Australia v USA, Ireland v Russia, Italy v USA, South Africa v Namibia, Wales v Namibia, South Africa v Samoa, Australia v Russia, New Zealand v Canada, Wales v Fiji).

Australia were drawing at half time (6-6) against a lower ranked team (Italy), no tries were scored in the first half. Australia scored the first converted try in the second half and won the game. Australia were drawing at half time against a lower ranked team (Ireland), no tries were scored in the game and Australia lost.

Scotland were leading at half time (9-3) against a lower ranked team (Georgia), no tries were scored in the game and Scotland won. Scotland were leading at half time (6-3) against a lower ranked team (Argentina), no tries were scored in the first half, Argentina scored the only converted try of the game and defeated Scotland.

England were losing at half time (3-6) to a lower ranked team (Argentina), no tries were scored in the first half. England scored the first (and only) converted try in the game in the second half and won. England were losing at half time (3-9) to a lower ranked team (Scotland), no tries were scored in the first half. England scored the first (and only) converted try in the game in the second half and won.

Canada scored the first converted try, were leading a higher ranked team at half time and won the game (against Tonga).

Wales did not score the first converted try of the game against a lower ranked team (Samoa) and were losing at half time. Wales scored the only try of the second half and won the game.

Japan did not score the first converted try of the game against a lower ranked team (Canada) but were winning at half time and drew the game.

Georgia were leading at half time (12-6) against a lower ranked team (Romania), no tries were scored in the first half, Georgia scored the only converted try of the game and won the game.

Samoa were leading at half time (12-0) against a lower ranked team (Fiji), no tries scored in the first half, Fiji scored the first try of the second half and won the game.

Tonga scored the first converted try, were leading at half time against a higher ranked team (France) and won.

Argentina scored the first try against a lower ranked team (Georgia), were losing at half time and won.

Ireland were leading at half time (9-6) against a lower ranked team (Italy), no tries scored in the first half, scored the first converted try of the game and won.

Tries Scored

241 tries have been scored in the 40 group games of the tournament (no tries were scored in the Scotland v Georgia, Australia v Ireland games):

First Half (108 Tries)

00:49 Kahn Fotuali’i (Samoa v Namibia)

02:45 Sergio Parisse (Italy v USA)

02:52 Frans Steyn (South Africa v Wales)

03:07 Conrad Smith (New Zealand v Japan)

03:12 Shontayne Hape (England v Georgia)

03:53 Vincent Clerc (France v Canada)

04:19 Julien Pierre (France v Japan)

04:36 Santiago Fernández (Argentina v Romania)

05:09 Vereniki Goneva (Fiji v Namibia)

05:17 Jamie Roberts (Wales v Fiji)

05:55 Sergio Parisse (Italy v Russia)

06:18 Berrick Barnes (Australia v Russia)

06:20 Gio Aplon (South Africa v Namibia)

06:25 Viliami Ma’afu (Tonga v Japan)

06:27 Zac Guildford (New Zealand v Canada)

06:37 Ryan Smith (Canada v France)

06:49 Dth Van der Merwe (Canada v Japan)

07:20 Scott Williams (Wales v Namibia)

07:10 Mike Blair (Scotland v Romania)

07:32 Rob Horne (Australia v USA)

08:06 Juan Manuel Leguizamón (Argentina v Romania)

08:48 Drew Mitchell (Australia v Russia)

09:10 Morne Steyn (South Africa v Samoa)

09:15 Fergus McFadden (Ireland v Russia)

09:33 Shota Horie (Japan v Canada)

09:36 Adam Thompson (New Zealand v France)

10:27 Victor Vito (New Zealand v Canada)

10:42 Israel Dagg (NZ v Tonga)

10:45 Rocky Elsom (Australia v USA)

11:36 Francois Trinh-Duc (France v Japan)

11:47 Ben McCalman (Australia v Russia)

12:23 Sean O’Brien (Ireland v Russia)

12:56 Jebb Sinclair (Canada v Tonga)

13:04 Giulio Toniolatti (Italy v Russia)

13:06 Kensuke Hatakeyama (Japan v Tonga)

13:44 Aled Brew (Wales v Namibia)

14:39 Tukulua Lokotui (Tonga v Japan)

14:58 Mark Cueto (England v Romania)

15:00 David Pocock (Australia v Russia)

15:13 Tommaso Benvenuti (Italy v Russia)

15:22 Richard Kahui (New Zealand v Japan)

16:o3 Alesana Tuilagi (Samoa v Namibia)

16:20 Scott Williams (Wales v Fiji)

16:45 Cory Jane (New Zealand v France)

17:01 Toby Faletau (Wales v Namibia)

17:13 Chris Wyles (USA v Italy)

17:16 Leone Nakarawa (Fiji v Namibia)

18:33 Mike Petri (USA v Russia)

19:00 Richard Kahui (NZ v Tonga)

19:44 Vereniki Goneva (Fiji v Namibia)

19:46 Israel Dagg (New Zealand v Canada)

20:06 Juan Figallo (Argentina v Romania)

20:14 Joe Ansbro (Scotland v Romania)

20:36 Israel Dagg (New Zealand v France)

20:41 Shontayne Hape (England v Georgia)

21:00 Jerome Kaino (New Zealand v Japan)

21:28 Mark Cueto (England v Romania)

21:42 David Pocock (Australia v Russia)

21:43 Bryan Habana (South Africa v Namibia)

22:40 Giulio Toniolatti (Italy v Russia)

22:53 JJ Gagiano (USA v Australia)

24:11 Zac Guildford (New Zealand v Canada)

25:28 Gurthrö Steenkamp (South Africa v Fiji)

25:45 Michael Leitch (Japan v Tonga)

25:58 Sukanaivalu Hufanga (Tonga v France)

26:02 Mark Cueto (England v Romania)

28:13 Israel Dagg (NZ v Tonga)

28:20 Penalty Try (Italy v Russia)

28:31 Mils Muliaina (New Zealand v Canada)

29:13 Lucas Gonzalez Amorosino (Argentina v Romania)

29:34 Keven Mealamu (New Zealand v Japan)

29:39 Luciano Orquera (Italy v USA)

29:50 Penalty Try (South Africa v Namibia)

30:10 Kurtley Beale (Australia v USA)

30:23 James Arlidge (Japan v France)

31:27 Juan Jose Imhoff (Argentina v Georgia)

31:43 Chris ashton (England v Romania)

31:46 Ionel Cazan (Romania v Argentina)

31:52 Richard Kahui (NZ v Tonga)

31:57 George North (Wales v Fiji)

32:18 Vladimir Ostroushko (Russia v Australia)

33:21 Alexander Yanyushkin (Russia v Italy)

33:31 Jaque Fourie (South Africa v Fiji)

33:47 Andy Ellis (New Zealand v Japan)

33:58 Vincent Clerc (France v Japan)

34:03 Alesana Tuilagi (Samoa v Namibia)

34:07 Anthony Faingaa (Australia v USA)

34:31 Zac Guildford (New Zealand v Canada)

34:41 Chris Ashton (England v Romania)

35:21 Stephen Moore (Australia v Russia)

35:25 Colin Slade (New Zealand v Japan)

36:44 Edoardo Gori (Italy v Russia)

37:26 Isaac Boss (Ireland v Russia)

37:38 Jaque Fourie (South Africa v Namibia)

38:05 Keith Earls (Ireland v Russia)

38:13 Lasha Khmaladze (Georgia v Argentina)

38:31 Adam Ashley-Cooper (Australia v Russia)

38:44 Sam Warburton (Wales v Fiji)

39:35 Siale Piutau (Tonga v Canada)

39:41 Tommy Bowe (Ireland v USA)

39:46 Kosuke Endo (Japan v Canada)

40:11 Conor Trainor (Canada v New Zealand)

40:13 Andre Trimble (Ireland v Russia)

40:19 Mihaita Alexandru Lazar (Romania v Scotland)

40:22 Martin Castrogiovanni (Italy v USA)

40:49 Vereniki Goneva (Fiji v Namibia)

41:20 Merab Kvirikashvili (Georgia v England)

41:41 Anthony Perenise (Samoa v Wales)

Second Half (133 Tries)

40:23 Ben Youngs (England v Romania)

40:58 Israel Dagg (New Zealand v France)

41:38 Salesi Ma’afu (Australia v Russia)

41:55 Conor Trainor (Canada v New Zealand)

42:37 Heinz Koll (Namibia v Fiji)

43:13 Phil McKenzie (Canada v Japan)

43:53 Jimmy Cowan (New Zealand v Canada)

44:33 Drew Mitchell (Australia v USA)

44:35 Richard Kahui (New Zealand v Japan)

46:27 Delon Armitage (England v Georgia)

46:28 Scott Williams (Wales v Namibia)

46:59 Brian O’Driscoll (Ireland v Italy)

47:44 Keith Earls (Ireland v Russia)

47:45 Tomasso Benvenuti (Italy v Russia)

47:46 Pat McCabe (Australia v USA)

48:06 Frans Steyn (South Africa v Fiji)

48:12 Frans Steyn (South Africa v Namibia)

48:30 Drew Mitchell (Australia v Russia)

48:53 Ben Foden (England v Romania)

48:54 Ben Alexander (Australia v Italy)

48:57 James Arlidge (Japan v France)

49:21 Gethin Jenkins (Wales v Namibia)

49:48 Vasily Artmeyev (Russia v Ireland), Vladamir Ostroushko (Russia v Italy)

50:14 Sonny Bill Williams (New Zealand v Japan)

50:19 Jamie Roberts (Wales v Fiji)

50:53 Vereniki Goneva (Fiji v Namibia)

50:54 George Stowers (Samoa v South Africa)

51:16 Jerome Kaino (New Zealand v Canada)

51:22 Keith Earls (Ireland v Italy)

52:20 Siale Piutau (Tonga v Canada)

52:22 Heinz Koll (Namibia v Wales)

53:35 Toby Faletau (Wales v South Africa)

53:57 Maxime Mermoz (France v New Zealand), Fetu’u Vainikolo (Tonga v Japan)

54:00 Alesana Tuilagi (Samoa v Namibia)

54:42 Adam Ashley-Cooper (Australia v Italy)

55:17 Isaia Toeava (New Zealand v Japan)

55:27 Rory Best (Ireland v USA)

55:38 Chrysander Botha (Namibia v Fiji)

55:58 Mamuka Gorgodze (Georgia v Romania)

57:04 Hirotoki Onozawa (Japan v New Zealand)

57:37 James O’Connor (Australia v Italy)

58:26 Paul Williams (Samoa v Namibia), Denis Simplikevich (Russia v Ireland)

58:31 Lloyd Burns (Wales v Fiji)

58:52 Adam Ashley-Cooper (Australia v USA)

58:55 Jerome Kaino (NZ v Tonga)

59:05 Tommy Bowe (Ireland v USA)

59:21 Sonny Bill Williams (New Zealand v Canada)

59:34 Andrew Hore (New Zealand v Japan)

59:56 Denis Simplikevich (Russia v Australia)

60:01 Morne Steyn (South Africa v Namibia), Penalty Try (Italy v USA)

60:18 George North (Wales v Namibia)

60:32 Manu Tulagi (England v Romania)

61:24 Kahn Fotual’i (Samoa v Fiji)

61:33 Ma’a Nonu (New Zealand v Japan)

61:48 Manu Tuilagi (England v Georgia)

62:00 Jonathan Davies (Wales v Namibia)

62:28 Danie Van Wyk (Namibia v Samoa)

62:30 Juan de Jongh (South Africa v Namibia)

62:34 Morné Steyn (South Africa v Fiji)

62.58 Alisi Tupuailai (Japan v Tonga)

63:17 Luke McLean (Italy v Russia)

63:33 Damien Traille (France v Canada)

63:43 Juan Jose Imhoff (Argentina v Romania)

63:46 Adam Ashley-Cooper (Australia v USA)

64:17 Rob Kearney (Ireland v Russia)

64:28 Gio Aplon (South Africa v Namibia)

64:37 Chris Ashton (England v Georgia)

64:42 Francois Hougaard (South Africa v Wales)

65:38 George North (Wales v Namibia)

65:40 Digby Ione (Australia v Italy)

65:55 Adam Ashley-Cooper (Australia v USA)

66:28 Daniel Carpo (Romania v Scotland)

66:30 Ben Youngs (England v Argentina)

66:36 Aaron Carpenter (Canada v Tonga)

66:55 Netani Edward Talei (Fiji v Samoa)

66:57 Shane Williams (Wales v Tonga)

67:02 Tom Croft (England v Romania)

67:13 Jerome Kaino (New Zealand v Canada)

67:39 Francois Hougaard (South Africa v Namibia)

67:45 Leigh Halfpenny (Wales v Fiji)

67:50 Konstantin Rachkov (Russia v Australia), Felipe Contepomi (Argentina v Georgia)

69:15 George Stowers (Samoa v Fiji)

69:21 Chris Ashton (England v Romania)

69:24 Tendai Mtawarira (South Africa v Fiji)

69:53 Scott Williams (Wales v Namibia)

70:08 Anthony Faingaa (Australia v USA)

70:13 Lionel Nallet (France v Japan)

70:37 Juan de Jongh (South Africa v Namibia)

70:45 Alexey Makovetskiy (Russia v Italy)

71:22 Genaro Fessia (Argentina v Romania)

71:56 Alisona Taumalolo (Tonga v NZ)

72:11 Shane Jennings (Ireland v Russia)

72:15 Lucas Gonzalez Amorosino (Argentina v Scotland)

72:20 Lloyd Williams (Wales v Fiji)

72:40 Phil Mackenzie (Canada v Tonga)

74:36 Simon Danielli (Scotland v Romania)

74:40 Ander Monro (Canada v Japan)

74:45 Lloyd Williams (Wales v Namibia)

75:12 Francois Trinh-Duc (France v New Zealand)

75:32 Danie Rossouw (South Africa v Fiji)

76:00 Adam Thomson (New Zealand v Japan)

76:01 Zac Guildford (New Zealand v Canada)

76:14 Ma’a Nonu (NZ v Tonga)

76:33 Alesandro Zanni (Italy v Russia)

76:37 Sonny Bill Williams (New Zealand v France)

76:53 Lee Byrne (Wales v Namibia)

76:58 Naipolioni Nalaga (Fiji v Namibia)

76:58 Pascal Pape (France v Japan)

77:04 Chris Ashton (England v Scotland)

77:05 Danie Rossuw (South Africa v Namibia)

77:36 Simon Danielli (Scotland v Romania)

77:44 Radike Samo (Australia v USA)

78:08 Theuns Kotze (Namibia v Samoa)

78:10 Vincent Clerc (France v Canada)

78:12 Sonny Bill Williams (New Zealand v Japan)

78:14 Berrick Barnes (Australia v Russia)

78:24 Tony Buckley (Ireland v Russia)

78:36 Agustín Gosio (Argentina v Georgia

79:16 Francois Hougaard (South Africa v Namibia)

79:27 Victor Vito (New Zealand v Canada)

79:29 Keith Earls (Ireland v Italy)

80:08 Paul Emerick (USA v Ireland)

81:01 Alun Wyn Jones (Wales v Namibia)

81:13 Jonathan Davies (Wales v Fiji)

81:17 Morgan Parra (France v Japan)

81:31 Vincent Clerc (France v Canada)

81:40 Chris Ashton (England v Georgia)

82:00 Vincent Clerc (France v Tonga)

Referees

The referees who have officiated in the tournament are:

George Clancy (Ireland) (NZ V Tonga, Scotland v Tonga, South Africa v Namibia, Italy v USA)

Dave Pearson (England) (Scotland v Romania, Russia v USA, Tonga v Japan, Georgia v Romania)

Nigel Owens (Wales) (Fiji v Namibia, New Zealand v Japan, Australia v USA, South Africa v Samoa)

Steve Walsh (Australia) (France v Japan, Argentina v Romania, Wales v Namibia, France v Tonga)

Bryce Lawrence (New Zealand) (Argentina v England, Australia v Ireland, Fiji v Samoa, Australia v Russia)

Alain Rolland (Ireland) (Australia v Italy, Wales v Samoa, New Zealand v France, Argentina v Georgia)

Craig Joubert (South Africa) (Ireland v USA, France v Canada, Ireland v Russia, England v Scotland)

Wayne Barnes (England) (South Africa v Wales, Italy v Russia, Argentina v Scotland, Wales v Fiji)

Romain Poite (France) (Samoa v Namibia, South Africa v Fiji, England v Romania, New Zealand v Canada)

Jonathan Kaplan (South Africa) (Tonga v Canada, England v Georgia, Canada v Japan, Ireland v Italy)

Photo Credit

USA Eagles 2011 Rugby World Cup Welcoming Ceremony

RWC Opening Fireworks


1 Comment

NRL 2011: Winning from behind in the regular season

I am interested in the ability to win in invasive team games.

This season I have looked at winning behaviours in association football, Australian rules football, rugby league and rugby union.

In this post I list those teams in this year’s 2011 NRL fixtures in Australia who were able to overcome a deficit within a game to win in the regular season (before the finals’ rounds).

In the table below the first named team (in bold) overcame a deficit to win. There was one draw that was not resolved in extra time.

This season the four largest deficits were overturned by the away team.

Gap Game Home/Away
22 Cowboys v Raiders (NRL13) Away Team
20 Rabbitohs v Dragons (NRL21) Away Team
18 Storm v Eels (NRL21) Away Team
18 Wests v Warriors (NRL14) Away Team
16 Bulldogs v Knights (NRL25) Home Team
16 Cowboys v Eels (NRL10) Home Team
14 Bulldogs v Eels (NRL6) Away Team
14 Titans v Tigers (NRL6) Home Team
13 Eagles v Sharks (NRL5) Away Team
12 Roosters v Eels (NRL25) Away Team
12 Rabbitohs v Cowboys (NRL24) Home Team
12 Tigers v Eagles (NRL21) Away Team
12 Raiders v Dragons (NRL20) Home Team
12 Cowboys v Titans (NRL20) Away Team
12 Warriors v Bulldogs (NRL19) Home Team
12 Rabbitohs v Sharks (NRL8) Home Team
12 Knights v Raiders (NRL7) Away Team
10 Bulldogs v Raiders (NRL24) Home Team
10 Dragons v Warriors (NRL25) Home Team
10 Roosters v Sharks (NRL24) Home Team
10 Eagles v Eels (NRL23) Away Team
10 Eels v Cowboys (NRL4) Home Team
8 Cowboys v Sharks (NRL25) Home Team
8 Warriors v Knights (NRL23) Home Team
8 Broncos v Warriors (NRL22) Home Team
8 Tigers v Dragons (NRL22) Home Team
8 Roosters v Panthers (NRL18) Home Team
8 Tigers v Panthers (NRL11) Home Team
8 Eels v Titans (NRL7) Home Team
6 Broncos v Rabbitohs (NRL25) Home Team
6 Panthers v Raiders (NRL25) Away Team
6 Titans v Raiders (NRL24) Home Team
6 Storm v Dragons (NRL24) Home Team
6 Storm v Panthers (NRL22) Home Team
6 Knights v Titans (NRL21) Home Team
6 Cowboys v Panthers (NRL21) Home Yeam
6 Roosters v Bulldogs (NRL21) Home Team
6 Panthers v Eels (NRL19) Home Team
6 Rabbitohs v Roosters (NRL19) Home Team
6 Eagles v Rabbitons (NRL18) Home Team
6 Knights v Dragons (NRL17) Away Team
6 Wests v Knights (NRL13) Home Team
6 Storm v Rabbitohs (NRL13) Away Team
6 Eagles v Broncos (NRL12) Away Team
6 Warriors v Knights (NRL10) Away Team
6 Wests v Raiders (NRL8) Away Team
6 Storm v Knights (NRL8) Home Team
6 Warriors v Storm (NRL7) Away Team
6 Warriors v Roosters (NRL5) Home Team
6 Bulldogs v Rabbitohs (NRL7) Home Team
6 Tigers v Rabbitohs (NRL5) Home Team
6 Eagles v Knights (NRL3) Home Team
6 Broncos v Titans (NRL3) Away Team
6 Wests v Warriors (NRL2) Home Team
6 Raiders v Sharks (NRL1) Home Team
6 Titans v Raiders (NRL4) Away Team
4 Knights v Raiders (NRL22) Home Team
4 Wests v Roosters (NRL20) Home Team
4 Knights v Roosters (NRL16) Home Team
4 Panthers v Cowboys (NRL16) Home Team
4 Sharks v Titans (NRL16) Away Team
4 Broncos v Dragons (NRL15) Home Team
4 Titans v Dragons (NRL13) Away Team
4 Broncos v Sharks (NRL13) Away Team
4 Panthers v Titans (NRL13) Away Team
4 Cowboys v Eagles (NRL8) Home Team
4 Knights v Sharks (NRL6) Home Team
4 Eagles v Warriors (NRL6) Home Team
4 Cowboys v Broncos (NRL1) Away Team
4 Broncos v Panthers (NRL4) Home Team
3 Eagles v Bulldogs (NRL24) Home Team
2 Roosters v Dragons (NRL23) Away Team
2 Storm v Titans (NRL23) Away Team
2 Warriors v Raiders (NRL21) Home Team
2 Sharks v Raiders (NRL18) Home Team
2 Storm v Warriors (NRL16) Away Team
2 Eagles v Eels (NRL15) Home Team
2 Cowboys v Warriors (NRL15) Home Team
2 Storm v Roosters (NRL14) Home Team
2 Storm v Sharks (NRL12) Home Team
2 Dragons v Cowboys (NRL9) Home Team
2 Warriors v Titans (NRL9) Away Team
2 Broncos v Knights (NRL5) Home Team
2 Bulldogs v Roosters (NRL2) Home Team
2 Knights v Panthers (NRL1) Away Team
2 Storm v Eagles (NRL1) Home Team
1 Bulldogs v Eels (NRL20) Home Team
1 Roosters v Rabbitohs (NRL1) Home Team
Draw
13 Dragons v Eels (NRL8) Home Team

Photo Credit

Video referee confirms Mark Gasnier’s try