Clyde Street

Learning, Teaching, Performing


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Social Media at the London Games: 20 July update

Some recent items following on from last month’s post about the “Social Media Olympics“.

The Conversation (20 July)

We’re getting pretty excited about the Olympics. With just a week to go, we’ve launched a new section on the site, dedicated to covering the Games from a variety of angles and points of expertise. If you haven’t seen it yet, you really should.

One of the features is our new Team Blog, with a starting line-up of 15 writers in Australia and the UK, comprising academics and Olympic athletes. How does it feel to dedicate your life so fully to a discipline that you don’t see your family for three years? Read this terrific post by Olympic rower Brodie Buckland to find out.

Unlike the, ahem, meticulous planning that’s gone into the London Games, the Team Blog is designed to be a bit anarchic. And very much like the Games, it’s designed to inspire and act as a showcase for some tremendous individuals.

Please do “like” our Facebook page and follow our dedicated Olympics Twitter account – @TCOlympics – for behind-the-scenes analysis of the sport, science, business, environment & politics of the Games – and, of course, to share your views.

Reuters (19 July)

Fans inside a stadium will be allowed to use their smartphones to film Usain Bolt on the track or Michael Phelps in the pool, but they will not be allowed to upload it to Facebook in a ruling that may surprise many tech-savvy fans who now upload clips on a regular basis.

A spokeswoman for Facebook said the group had a close relationship with the London organizers and would respond to any IP violations in the same way they do with other events.

#fail?

And the prevalence of social media is also throwing up different challengers for the London organizers.

“Um, so we’ve been lost on the road for 4hrs,” said twice world 400 meters hurdles champion Kerron Clement via Twitter, showing how one athlete could change the perception of the Games and the reporting of the Games with just one 140 character Tweet. “Not a good first impression London.

“Athletes and officials are sleepy, hungry and need to pee. Could we get to the Olympic Village please?”

Traditional media including newspapers and TV in Britain jumped on the fact the bus driver had got lost, despite the rest of the transport system appearing to be working properly.

IOC Social Media, Blogging and Internet Guidelines for participants and other accredited persons at the London 2012 Olympic Games (31 August 2011).

James Manning (Sydney Morning Herald, 15 July):

The IOC’s official Facebook page, which has 2.9 million fans, will host live video chats with athletes from within the Olympic village. The IOC has also partnered Facebook for Explore London 2012, an official page that presents the Facebook pages of athletes, teams and sports. ”We want to bring discovery to the Olympics,” Facebook’s Joanna Shields says.

There are also official Olympics pages on Twitter, Google+, Foursquare, Tumblr, Instagram and YouTube (though YouTube’s streams are not viewable in Australia due to broadcasting rights).

Ninemsn has also capitalised on the rise of social media with Social Games, an online game in which cash is awarded to fans who share the most articles, photos and videos via social media.

But there are some rules around social media for both spectators and athletes. Due to broadcasting rights, viewers can take video for personal use but not share it on social media. You can post photos on social media, as long as you don’t earn money from them.

We’re working with the UK’s foremost expert on Twitter sentiment analysis, Professor Mike Thelwall, from the University of Wolverhampton, and Sosolimited (www.sosolimited.com), a team of MIT graduates with expertise in linguistic analysis and data visualisation, to provide a robust methodology, state of the art analytics and accurate results. Throughout London 2012 we will be measuring the Energy of the Nation by reading the raw Twitter feed and filtering it for those tweets originating from the UK that make reference to the Olympics.
 

Seb Coe (20 July)

LOCOG chief Sebastian Coe has advised British athletes to forget about using Twitter during the Olympics.

“Personally I have found quite a close correlation between the number of tweets at competitive times and the level of under-performance,” he said.

“I have found a direct correlation between the amount of activity an athlete enters into on social media and their ultimate performance when it really matters – but that’s for them to figure out.”


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Connecting at and through the London Olympics

It has been fascinating to observe the growth in social media opportunities between the 2008 and 2012 Olympic Games. An Associated Press post on 19 June announced London Games to Be First Social Media Olympics.

“In Sydney (2000) there was hardly any fast Internet, in Athens (2004) there were hardly any smartphones, in Beijing hardly anyone had social networks,” said Jackie-Brock Doyle, communications director of London organizing committee LOCOG. “That’s all changed. Here, everyone has all that and will be consuming the games in a different way.”

The official London 2012 website has links to:

There is an information page about the use of the official website.

Elana Zak has posted about 7 Social Media Resources for Journalists Covering the Olympics. Her seven resources include:

Earlier this week Ingrid Lunden posted about Facebook’s Social Olympic Ambition, Explore London 2012: A Dedicated Athlete Portal, But No Ads.

My prompt to write this post came from two email alerts:

iSportConnect has announced a Networking Tool for iSportconnect members who will be attending the London Olympic Games.

This tool allows members to keep up to date with all the latest news, events and uniquely find out who will be attending what games whilst giving you the opportunity to make new business and contacts plus arrange meetings.   The 2012 Summer Olympic Games will take place in London, England, United Kingdom, from 27 July to 12 August 2012.

Storify’s 5 Ways to Storify the Summer Olympics:

  • Follow athletes on Twitter, and make a scrapbook of their London Games
  • Storify the latest news about the Games
  • Collect beautiful photos and share them on Pinterest or elsewhere
  • Get all geeky with it
  • An international community of memes

I checked Foursquare too following the announcement of a partnership with the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

The IOC has issued a  set of guidelines for athletes and others accredited for the Games about blogging, posting and tweeting about their experiences. The AP post notes that:

London Olympic organizers have drawn up strict rules for their employees and the 70,000 Olympic volunteers. They have been told not to share their location, any images of scenes in areas that are off limits to the public, or details about athletes, celebrities or dignitaries who they find themselves in contact with.

It was be informative to see how the infrastructure for these social Games deals with such diverse demands:
At the last Summer Olympics in Beijing in 2008, Twitter had about 6 million users and Facebook 100 million. Today, the figure is 140 million for Twitter and 900 million for Facebook.
Photo Credits


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Fossicking in the Social Web

According to Wikipedia, fossicking is a term found in Cornwall and Australia referring to prospecting.

“This can be for gold, precious stones, fossils, etc. by sifting through a prospective area. In Australian English, the term has an extended use meaning to rummage.”

My engagement with the social web is akin to rummaging but through trusted networks I do find rich seams of resources and opportunities.

Recently (thanks to Diigo) I have rummaged through:

This morning (thanks to Stephen Downes) Crocdoc and Osmek.

Of late I have not been visiting Twitter or Facebook but know that they are there. I have started to use LinkedIn much more and have joined some new groups: ICALT, Sport for Development, Sports Performance Analysis and World Class Athlete Development.

Fossicking is a very popular activity in my village. It is an old gold town and there are hidden treasures. It seems very apt that I should be rummaging around too!

Photo Credits

Gold minehead

Bernard Otto Holtermann


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Communication, Social Media and the Coach

I am meeting with Robin McConnell‘s undergraduate Advanced Coaching Studies’ group on 29 April.

My discussion topic is Communication, Social Media and the Coach.

This blog post is the start of a conversation with the group in advance of the meeting.

I am keen to discuss:

  1. Coach and athlete communication.
  2. Opportunities provided by social media to share ideas and discuss performance.
  3. Augmented information.

This blog has a number of posts on these topics. I am hopeful that the students coming to the meeting have an opportunity to look at:

There are many more posts that might be of interest (and some SlideShare presentations) but I am keen to explore how students in the group engage with social media and cloud computing. I will be asking about slow reading too (Kingsley, 2010). I will recommend SIRC’s excellent social media resource and mention Wirearchy via Harold Jarche’s post Social Learning, Complexity and the Enterprise. I will point to Tom Slee’s post on social media (via Kent Anderson), Jason Kramer-Duffield’s discussion of communication ecologies and evidence about the Internet and civil society. Brian Solis posted about the social genome in his discussion of The Three C’s of Social Networking (consumption, curation, creation).

A recent report from Canada (2011) points out that:

Cloud computing is a loose and evolving term generally referring to the increasing use of computer applications that are web-based. A cloud-based application does not need to be downloaded to a user’s computer or institutional servers, and the data used by the application and inputted by the user is housed on servers elsewhere. The application works remotely: it’s not physically present, it could be anywhere in the world (hence the term “in the cloud”).

Social media applications are by definition cloud-based: Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Blogging services like WordPress.com, Blogger, Tumblr or Posterous, or link sharing sites like StumbleUpon, Digg. Any individual may sign on and start using such services independent of their institutional affiliations.

The students in the group will graduate this year at a remarkable time. As coaches in a digital age they will become produsers of learning resources that can have profound impacts on personal learning environments.The scale of this age is indicated by Gary Hayes’ Social Media Counts (13 April 2011):

(For an alternative set of metrics see Is Social Media Ruining Students?)

I hope to end our discussions on with a consideration of leadership behaviours that will resonate with Robin’s discussion throughout the unit. I hope too that we can explore the role augmented information plays in short, medium and long-term coach-athlete relationships.

I will be suggesting that the students follow up on a great case study of the use of social media. Mark Upton and Robert Oatey have developed teamsportcoaching.com. Mark and Robert are strong advocates of coach education and are “true believers in the potential of the online medium to deliver content that can enhance a wide variety of coaching methods and disciplines”. I think Mark’s post, Creating the ‘coachable moment’ with PlayerTube and online video, exemplifies excellent use of social media based upon profound understanding of the coaching process.

After all this discussion I will recommend reading Connectivism & The Relationship Era. The post includes this observation which seems a great place to end the day’s conversation:

In the connectivist learning model, the flow of knowledge is more important than the knowledge itself. In other words, the process is more important than the content. The main reason for this is that there is a constant need for quick adaptation. In this era, knowledge must be directed quickly to where it is needed to be applied. Once it has served its purpose, it is archived and momentarily forgotten. Notice that discarding information is now practically unheard of because once the connection has been made (i.e. something is learned), it will be stored somewhere. The additional task is mere retrieval or recollection.

Postscript

In this post I am considering free social media. There are a variety of third part software services available too. A recent white paper on Becoming a Social Business (2011) observes that:

The rise in consumer-oriented social networking applications and platforms over recent years has drawn curiosity from enterprises both large and small. IDC believes that curiosity has turned into business opportunity as the lines between consumer and enterprise continue to blur. Unfortunately, adoption of social software in the enterprise has encountered some skepticism due to the hype surrounding the technology and the perception that it is the younger generations’ means for socializing with friends. It has also been criticized as being a waste of time. Yet there is evidence to suggest that this doubt is shifting and that enterprise social software is becoming the next generation of collaboration tools to enhance organizational productivity.

As an example IBM has a social software available (IBM Connections):

Photo Credits

Coaches watching the fight

Coach with the wrestler’s hat

Wrestler with his coach

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Edging to Open Learning in Open Spaces

Last week I had the opportunity to visit Ballarat to discuss Edgeless Challenges and Opportunities. I have been thinking a great deal about learning spaces and the function (rather than the form) of the university of late. In part these thoughts have been stimulated by the University of Canberra’s development of teaching and learning commons.

This week I have been overwhelmed by the number of connections I am finding in relation to open learning and sharing. Some of these connections include:

many universities have an educational technology department that is focused on PD. Research institutes devoted to understanding the intersection of education, technology, systemic reform, and pedagogy are less rare. Several years ago, Phil Long (CEIT) and I discussed the need for a collaborative network of research labs/academies/institutes that were focused on researching learning technologies, not solely on driving institutional adoption. Perhaps it’s time to revisit that idea.

  • Discovering A.K.M. Maksud’s 2006 paper The Nomadic Bede Community And Their Mobile School Program after listening to an interview with Irene Khan. Boat schools bring a different perspective on edgeless learning opportunities and mobile learners. (Sharing this paper with a colleague brought me Simon Shum and Alexandra Okada’s paper Knowledge Cartography for Open Sensemaking Communities (2008) from the Journal of Interactive Media in Education and from another colleague Kenn Fisher’s discussion of Mode 3 Learning: The Campus as Thirdspace.)

  • Finding Cisco’s paper (June 2010) on Hyperconnectivity through a Diigo link. Hyperconnectivity is defined as:

active multitasking on one hand, and passive networking on the other. Passive networking consists largely of background streaming and downloading. Ambient video (nannycams, petcams, home security cams, and other persistent video streams) is an element of passive networking that opens up the possibility for the number of video minutes crossing the network to greatly exceed the number of video minutes actually watched by consumers.

  • In the past year, the Cisco paper notes that:

it has become clear that visual networking applications are often used concurrently with other applications and sometimes even other visual networking applications, as the visual network becomes a persistent backdrop that remains “on” while the user multitasks or is engaged elsewhere. This trend accompanies what is sometimes called the widgetization of Internet and TV, as network traffic expands beyond the borders of the browser window and the confines of the PC.

Traditional approaches to community regeneration which define communities in solely geographic terms have severe limitations. They often failed to deliver on key social capital improvements such as improving trust between residents or fostering a greater sense of belonging.

In this report we argue for a new approach to community regeneration, based on an understanding of the importance of social networks, such an approach has the potential to bring about significant improvements in efforts to combat isolation and to support the development of resilient and empowered communities.

  • Noting in Harold Jarche’s post Innovation through network learning that he now takes for granted his “network learning processes, using social bookmarking; blogging and tweeting, and these habits make collaboration much easier”. He observes that:

However, these habits and practices have taken several years to develop and may not come easily to many workers. One difficult aspect of adopting network learning in an organization is that it’s personal. If not, it doesn’t work. Everybody has to develop their own methods, though there are frameworks and ideas that can help.

All this before I started exploring the treasure trove that arrives in my in box each day from Stephen Downes! Early on in the week I noted Stephen’s comment on Education and the Social Web: “A theory of connections can’t be just about forming connections; it has to be about the organization, shape and design of networks of connection, patterns of connectivity. And to me, this means that we need to design learning systems to meet personal, not political, social or commercial, objectives.” Later in the week in a discussion of two MOOC posts, Stephen suggests that: “It’s about attitude and approach. If you’re looking for someone to tell you how it works, you will find a MOOC confusing and frustrating. But if you take responsibility for your own learning, you will find any connection in a MOOC either an opportunity to teach or an opportunity to learn. No instructions necessary.”

This week has underscored for me the rich possibilities that can occur in shared spaces. My thoughts keep returning to Dharavi and the opportunities for personal wayfinding in shared spaces that afford a collective, connected experience too. I am very hopeful that the University of Canberra’s Commons ideas can stimulate innovative use of place, space and time and lead to an exciting edgy practice.

Photo Credits

Kaptai Lake

Hole in Wall

Moodle on the Move

Postscript

A day after posting this I received a link to a delightful flash mob video. I wondered if open learning spaces might stimulate this kind of event.

Other Links

2nd Annual Learning Commons Development and Design Forum, 30-31 March 2011, Brisbane.

  • Learning Commons strategy and organisational structures
  • Planning and design
  • Case studies and best practices
  • Digital information and technologies
  • Online resources


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Sport n.0: Connecting Social Networks

Last year I wrote a paper for a special edition (Multimedia, the World Wide Web and eLearning in Sport) of the International Journal of Computer Science in Sport. The paper was rejected by a number of referees. The rejection was a salutary experience for me.

I wrote the paper in the afterglow of the remarkable CCK08 on line course. I was enchanted (and remain so) about the possibilities of connected groups and the opportunities that arise from sharing openly with colleagues whose work resonates with one’s own work and thoughts. The paper seemed a great way to share some of these experiences.

Two events have prompted me to revisit the rejected paper this week:

1. News that Facebook has 500 million users and that “more than a third of those who use the internet worldwide sign in to Facebook to update their status or post photos”.

2. Stephen Downes’ discussion of the xWeb as “the utilization of smart, structured data drawn from our physical and virtual interactions and identities to extend our capacity to be known by others and by systems.”

The paper is titled Sport n.0: Connecting Social Networks

Abstract

This paper discusses a connectivist approach to the development of social networks in computer science in sport. Social networks have used Web 2.0 tools to grow their connections and the prospects for a Semantic Web 3.0 present enormous opportunities for all of us in our personal and professional lives. This paper uses the concept of Sport n.0 to explore how each of us in the computer science in sport community can grow our interconnections through the use of social media. A case study of the development of one social network site is presented as a heuristic to explore possibilities for connectedness. The paper concludes that a move to open access is a key to the sustainability of the International Association of Computer Science in Sport and the flourishing of the International Journal of Computer Science in Sport.

Keywords: sport n.0,  Connectivism, social networks, social media, open access
Social Networks

In this paper I explore the social network possibilities open to communities of practice in computer science in sport. The paper is an exhortation to invest energy to create and develop open networks that share insights, knowledge and experiences that transcend language, geographical space and synchronous time.

Alexandra Marin and Barry Wellman (2009) point out that “social life is created primarily and most importantly by relations and the patterns formed by these relations. Social networks are formally defined as a set of nodes (or network members) that are tied by one or more types of relations”.  George Siemens (2008a) notes that “the advancements of the last several decades have made networks of learning explicit. Networks are reflected not only as physical information communication technologies, but as the very means through which knowledge is distributed for addressing complex challenges”.

Jane Hart (2009) has done a great deal to promote and support social learning. She suggests that “Social Learning can create more powerful and enduring learning experiences through the use of online communities and networks, where learners are encouraged to co-create, collaborate and share knowledge and fully participate in their learning”. Stephen Downes (2006) has argued that “theorists will have to, like students, immerse themselves in their field, to encounter and engage in a myriad of connections, to immerse themselves, as McLuhan would say, as though in a warm bath. But it’s a new world in here, and the water’s fine”.

This paper proposes that the computer science community immerse itself in social networks to engage theorists and practitioners in a discourse enriched by the possibilities of a Sport n.0. We are in an age of digital scholarship.

Digital Scholarship

Nancy Maron and Kirby Smith (2009) point out that this is an age of digital scholarship and observe that “as electronic resources for scholarship proliferate, more and more scholars turn to their computers rather than to print sources to conduct their research. While society journals, university presses, and conference proceedings still form the backbone of the scholarly publishing enterprise, alongside them many new digital scholarly resources have appeared, sprouting up wherever there is a devoted individual or team of scholars willing to create and nurture them”. Tony Bates (2009) considers that this digital scholarship is ‘embedded’ digital literacy and observes that “to be a scholar now means knowing how to find, analyse, organise and apply digital information. Studying without the use of technology is increasingly like learning to dive without water”. Rob Fitzgerald et al (2009) report the development of digital learning communities that are built by “an exploratory conversation between students, teachers, texts and technologies and that this is so whether learning is happening in the school, university, workplace, classroom, laboratory, or field”.

In the call for papers for this special edition (Multimedia, the World Wide Web and e-learning in Sport) of the International Journal of Computer Science in Sport (IJCSS), Larry Katz and Christoph Igel observed that: “We are interested in papers that explore the innovative use of these tools and their effectiveness in improving learning and performance”.  The call was contained in a PDF document and shared inter alia with the International Association of Computer Science in Sport’s listserv by email.

Larry Katz is a professor at the University of Calgary. Andrew Waller and Mary Westell (2009) report that the University of Calgary has had an Open Access Repository since 2003 that contains “citations for over 14,000 items, approximately 9,000 of which connect directly to full text. Material types include journal articles, reports of many different sorts, datasets, and theses and dissertations”.  Christoph Igel’s work at the Universitat  des Saarlands has been recognised with the award of the Chief Learning Officer 2009 for his work in the development of virtual learning and sharing communities.

In the context of the IJCSS call for papers it is interesting that a special edition on multimedia should be published in a conventional forum that limits the media that can be used and shared. This paper is a plea for a move to open access publishing and the transformation of intellectual property using Creative Commons approaches to community development as exemplified in the success of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (Gunther Eysenbach, 2009). It is a plea too to welcome and value the work of people like Brewster Kahle and John Willinsky.

Alex Wright (2007) points out that “ever since the Web first started to flicker across the world’s computer screens, we have seen a bull market in hyperbole about the digital age”. This paper celebrates that social networks are human networks and that there is an evident need to balance claims made for digital networks with the personal interactions each of us has in our daily lives (see Photograph 1).



Photograph 1: IACSS Dagstuhl Workshop, September 2006

Sport n.0

Many commentators locate the development of social networks and digital scholarship in terms of the n.0 characteristics the worldwide web. Wikipedia provides a brief account of Web 1.0 and a much more detailed account of Web 2.0. More recently Greg Boutin (2009a; 2009b; 2009c) has been exploring the characteristics of Web 3.0.  The European Future Internet Portal has shared a video about Web 3.0 and points out that 3.0 characteristics include: “an Internet of Services, where services are ubiquitous; an Internet of Things where in principle every physical object becomes an online addressable resource; a Mobile Internet where 24/7 seamless connectivity over multiple devices is the norm; and the need for semantics in order to meet the challenges presented by the dramatic increase in the scale of content and users”.

It is interesting to note that when the Information Architects’ blog (2007) discussed Web n.0 to visualise Web trends (see Visualisation 1), the authors observed that “we have added a Web Generation number … please note that there are some websites that are Web 1.5, some that are 2.5, and some that are 0.5. This is not a mistake. Web 2.5 is what Facebook is up to… The Generation number is not necessarily qualifying, but it’s not surprising that websites that do well are usually above 1.0; some of them (like eBay and Wikipedia) were 2.0 long before the term was coined”.

Visualisation 1: Web Trends Map 2007/V2

This visualisation locates the 200 most successful 2007 websites on the Tokyo Metro Map, ordered by category, proximity, success, popularity and perspective. A trendmap for 2009 is available.

The potential of these n.0 changes for our communities of practice in sport is enormous and has been exemplified in Larry Katz’s Sports Technology Research Laboratory and Christoph Igel’s e-learning work. My own approach to developments in Sport n.0 were shared earlier this year with delegates at the Thirteenth World Congress of the International Association for Sports Information and in a SlideShare presentation about Institute 4.0.  Mills Davis (2009) has discussed four types of web: 1.0 the Web (connects information); 2.0 the Social Web (connects people);  3.0 the Semantic Web (connects knowledge); and web 4.0 the Ubiquitous Web (connects intelligence). In the 4.0 space there will be “agent webs that know, learn and reason as humans do”.

Social Media

A report by the Smart Services CRC (2009) defines social media as “websites which build on Web 2.0 technologies to provide space for in-depth social interaction, community formation, and the tackling of collaborative projects”. There has been a proliferation of these media in recent years.

As each of us explores these social media we have the opportunity to learn with and from others. Wikis have proven to be a powerful medium for sharing. An excellent example of what is possible is demonstrated in the Connectivism and Connective Knowledge CCK08 course wiki and in work by such people as Leigh Blackall (2009).

The aggregation of our experiences through wikis offers enormous opportunities to grow communities. Gene Schembri (2008) has provided an interesting example of how a wiki can be used to support  learning communities in sport. He observes that wikis enable people to: share information; discuss a topic and invite comment on it; provide open access to upload and share resources;  and provide opportunities to edit material to ensure that content is current and accurate. Most wikis allow authors to create content without a knowledge of mark up language. Sue Vesper (2009) provides some interesting background information about wikis for those keen to explore their use.

There are some fascinating projects underway to explore social media. Howard Rheingold’s work with the Social Media Classroom (2009) aims to “grow a public resource of knowledge and relationships among all who are interested in the use of social media in learning, and therefore, it is made public with the intention of growing a community of participants who will take over its provisioning, governance and future evolution”. Michael Wesch (2008) and his students at Kansas State University are exploring digital ethnography. Michael Wesch’s video The Machine is Us/ing Us (2007) has been viewed almost ten million times on YouTube, it has over 21,000 ratings and 8,000 comments.

In 2008 a massive, open, online Connectivism course demonstrated how Sport n.0 might use social media to link and grow its communities of practice. This course,  Connectivism and Connective Knowledge (CCK08), is the subject of the next part of this paper.

Connectivism

In 2004 George Siemens proposed that “Connectivism presents a model of learning that acknowledges the tectonic shifts in society where learning is no longer an internal, individualistic activity. How people work and function is altered when new tools are utilized”. His identification of Connectivism as a learning theory for the Digital Age has stimulated enormous interest and discussion. A community keen to explore his ideas came together for the Connectivism and Connective Knowledge (CCK08) in the second half of 2008.

Principles of Connectivism identified by George Siemens (2004) that underpinned the CCK08 course were:

  • Learning and knowledge rest in a diversity of opinions.
  • Learning is a process of connecting specialised nodes or information sources.
  • Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
  • Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known.
  • Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.
  • Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
  • Accurate, up-to-date knowledge is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
  • Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality.

George Siemens (2009) has provided a comparison of learning theories to locate the distinctiveness of Connectivism. This comparison is presented in Table 1.

Table 1: A comparison of learning theories

CCK08 provided a forum to explore, discuss and debate Connectivism and I believe the model has enormous possibilities for communities of practice in computer science in sport. The structure of the course was:

  • Each week had a clearly defined topic.
  • The topic was introduced by a short article or introduction or podcast.
  • Links to external resources for additional reading/viewing were provided weekly.
  • Short podcasts and opinion pieces explored disagreements.
  • Discussions were held in asynchronous forums like blogs, Moodle, and wikis. The course code (CCK08) was used for tagging posts or sharing del.icio.us resources.
  • Assignments and activities for participants who enrolled “for-credit” were required for completion/reflection on a weekly basis.
  • Weekly live lectures and presentations were held. These lectures were delivered in Elluminate, UStream TV and BlipTV and were recorded for participants in different time zones.
  • Guest presenters were involved throughout the course.
  • Mind maps of key discussion topics were co-created with participants at the conclusion of each week.
  • The time required by learners was a minimum of five hours per week (reading, assignments, etc) and a maximum of ten to fifteen hours (depending on learners’ expertise with online environments and familiarity with subject matter).

At the end of the course George Siemens (2009b) summarised his involvement as a course facilitator: “I have spend a minimum of 12 hours per week on CCK08. Some weeks, especially at the start, were likely closer to about 30 hours”.

The pattern of George’s time included:

  • Contributions to The Daily: 3-5 hours a week (reading posts and writing commentary)
  • Reading Moodle forum contributions: 5-7 hours a week (reading and posting)
  • Recording/wrapup/introduction for the next week: from zero hours some weeks to 2 hours others
  • Live sessions: 3+ hours (Elluminate and UStream sessions)
  • Responding to email: 2-5 hours a week
  • Marking papers: approximately 1 hour min per paper (reading, reflecting, and trying to write something coherent and hopefully of value to the participants). Total marking time for the course: more than 75 hours
  • Course preparation time: 60-80 hours

Overall George estimated that the total time he spent on the CCK08 course was between 375-425 hours.

There are many communities that have flourished as a result of the CCK08 course. Stephen Downes (2009a) has provided an overview of the course and its open access potential.

The CCK08 course was an excellent case study of Nancy White (2009)  Communities of Practice. These communities have nine facets:

  • Meetings – in person or online gatherings with an agenda.
  • Projects – interrelated tasks with specific outcomes or products.
  • Access to expertise – learning from experienced practitioners.
  • Relationship – getting to know each other.
  • Context – internally-focused or serving the wider world.
  • Community cultivation – recruiting, orienting and supporting members, growing the community.
  • Individual participation – enabling members to craft their own experience of the community.
  • Content – a focus on capturing and publishing what the community learns and knows.
  • Open ended conversation – conversations that continue to rise and fall over time without a specific goal.

I believe the CCK08 is an important model for developments within the computer science in sport community. Its use of social media has enormous implications for the way knowledge sharing communities are supported and sustained. Importantly Connectivism acknowledges the place personal learning environments have in this process. The CCK08 course led to an incandescence of activity and a flourishing of social networks. The Daily produced during the course gives a feel for the digital scholarship stimulated by the course. Two examples of community building projects that arose from the course include Digifolios and Personal Learning Spaces and Connectivism, Technology, Web 2.0.

Stephen Downes (2009b) argues that “the first phase of educational media was focused almost entirely toward learning management”. Social media have made a second phase possible. Stephen Downes characterises this phase as the personal learning environment (PLE). Tony Hirst (2009) explores some of the possibilities for PLEs in a time of “radical syndication” and “the uncourse attitude”. His work demonstrates some of the ways in which content can be packaged, bundled, unbundled, mixed, remixed, contextualised, commented upon and scheduled for delivery using freely available web tools and techniques that do not need a programmer to operate them. The United Kingdom’s Open University Platform (2008) is an excellent example of this approach as is a web site that addresses the mashable (2009) affordances of digital media.

IACSS09

My involvement in the CCK08 course accelerated and focused my interest in social networks. During the course I used a range of social media to explore collaborative learning. I invested considerable energy in developing my blog Clyde Street and as part of the CCK08 course I posted each week and commented on colleagues’ blog posts. Visualisation 2 plots the increased readership of the blog since its inception in June 2008.

Visualisation 2: Clyde Street views per month

Clyde Street attracted its highest monthly readership during March 2009. This coincided with two conferences at which I blogged live. One was the International Association of Sports Information 13th World Congress in Canberra. The other was the National Library of Australia’s Innovative Ideas Forum 2009 also in Canberra.

Live blogging provides an opportunity to share presentations with colleagues within Australia and around the world. It offers an almost synchronous sharing opportunity as well as an asynchronous record for colleagues in different time zones. Microblogging services such as Twitter are now offering real time sharing of information in 140 character blocks of text.

My experience in CCK08 encouraged me to develop a Ning site for the IACSS09 Symposium to be held in Canberra.

The aim of this site was to build a social network around the work of IACSS and to create a pre-conference connection between delegates and organisers. It was defined as an unofficial site to avoid any confusion with the official Symposium site.

The Ning site was launched in December 2008 and one of the strong reasons for using the Ning suite of tools was its language potential. Ning offers the opportunity to use twenty-three languages on the site. The Language Editor page provides information about this functionality. Importantly it is possible to import language files from other Ning sites. My hope was that this agnostic feature would stimulate exchanges in a variety of languages (see Visualisation 3).

Visualisation 3: An example of four languages for upload to the site

One of the options available to Ning sites is to have an advert free skin and I chose this option (for a small monthly fee) to ensure that IACSS was not seen to be supporting any commercial activity by a third party over which IACSS had no control.

In December 2008, I started sending out invitations to join the Ning site. This was an important step as I was able to moderate all membership uptake to ensure  that there was no abuse of the site by uninvited third parties. Once a member was approved that member had full access to the site’s functions. Importantly the site does not require mark up language. At the time of writing this paper there are forty-seven members. Each of these members has the freedom to:

  • Add a blog post
  • Start a discussion topic
  • Create an event
  • Add music
  • Upload photographs
  • Upload video
  • Write a note
  • Invite a friend to join the site

These functions are located on one site and remove the necessity to use multiple sites for the social network.

The CCK08 course discussed earlier in this paper demonstrated the potential of social media to grow networks linked by mutual interest. The IACSS09 Ning site is an example of a connectivist approach to social network development in computer science in sport. At present it awaits examples of non-English language use. The next step is to encourage drivers from IACSS to initiate this multi-lingual exchange.

I believe this kind of exchange can lead to the production of remarkable open access materials. I conclude this paper with a brief discussion of open access publication as the logical outcome of a commitment to Connectivism, Sport n.0 and social networks.

Open Access

Lee Orsdel and Kathleen Born (2009) provide a detailed overview of the impact of the global 2008 financial crisis on library budgets. They report that “In an unprecedented move, the International Coalition of Library Consortia issued a statement to publishers in January warning that double-digit budget cuts over the next few years are expected and calling for creative strategies from publishers who want to keep their business. The Association of Research Libraries followed with its own statement in February, underscoring the need for publishers to take this crisis seriously”.

This financial crisis is occurring at a time when the impact of Open Access journals is growing (Shu-Kun Lin, 2009). It is occurring at a time when there are increasing calls for and commitments to Open Access in universities such as Harvard, the Universite de Geneve, and Roehampton. It is occurring at a time too when the Public Knowledge Project (2009) is growing its reach as is the Internet Archive. It is occurring at a time when there is increasing discussion of the Edgeless University (Peter Bradwell, 2009) in which “technology is changing universities as they become just one source among many for ideas, knowledge and innovation. But online tools and open access also offer the means for their survival. Through their institutional capital, universities can use technology to offer more flexible provision and open more equal routes to higher education and learning”.

Matt Wedel (2009) has raised some fascinating issues in relation to the links between published articles in peer review journals and the posts written in blogs. He draws attention to what he calls the Intolerable Problem: “which is that people online can critique papers and present new evidence and arguments in a format that is impermanent and not peer-reviewed. It’s intolerable because on one hand such material is not currently (operative word) citable in most outlets, and on the other hand repeating it sans citation in peer-reviewed literature smacks of plagiarism (to some, but not to all)”.

When I first contemplated writing this paper I posted my thoughts online in this post.  I received two responses about the principle of sharing a paper on line. Both responses encouraged me to contemplate what a collaborative paper might look like. I do find myself attracted to Matt Wedel’s (2009) argument that “I still think that the investment of blog posts with respectability, value, citability, or whatever rests entirely with readers, and always will. Options range from treating posts like papers to treating them like bar conversations to treating them like spam. You decide”. The availability of WebCite functionality will transform this debate: “a WebCite®-enhanced reference is a reference which contains – in addition to the original live URL (which can and probably will disappear in the future, or its content may change) – a link to an archived copy of the material, exactly as the citing author saw it when he accessed the cited material”.

If accepted for publication this paper will appear in 2010. In order to retain some currency I have chosen to use references mainly from 2009 in the drafting of this paper. By the time the special edition of IJCC on multimedia appears we will have had the Seventh IACSS Symposium. At this Symposium it is intended to use as many of the social network tools available to connect delegates in novel ways that are appearing elsewhere. As IACSS develops its own Symposia formats it will be interesting to see how these formats resonate with those organised by CERN (2009) and AACE (2009) amongst others.

It is a most remarkable time of change in the ways we communicate.

References

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Blackall, L. (2009). Composing educational resources. (Wikieducator wiki)

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Bradwell, P. (2009). The Edgeless University. London: Demos. http://www.demos.co.uk/files/Edgeless_University_-_web.pdf?1245715615 accessed 29 June 2009.

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Downes, S. (2009a). Access2OER: The CCK08 Solution. Journal article (On-line/Unpaginated) http://halfanhour.blogspot.com/2009/02/access2oer-cck08-solution.html accessed 29 June 2009.

Downes, S. (2009b). Beyond Management: The Personal Learning Environment. Keynote address EdMedia World Conference, Hawaii, June 2009 http://www.aace.org/conf/edmedia/speakers/downes.htm accessed 29 June 2009.

Downes, S. (2006). Learning Networks and Connective Knowledge. Journal article (On-line/Unpaginated) http://it.coe.uga.edu/itforum/paper92/paper92.html accessed 29 June 2009.

Eysenbach, G. (2009). Open Access journal JMIR rises to top of its discipline. Journal article (On-line/Unpaginated) http://gunther-eysenbach.blogspot.com/2009/06/open-access-journal-jmir-rises-to-top.html accessed 29 June 2009.

Fitzgerald, R., Barras, S., Campbell, J., Hinton, S., Yoni, R., Whitelaw, M., Bruns, A., Miles, A., Steele. J. & McGinness, N. (2009). Digital learning communities and social software. Australian Learning and Teaching Council http://eprints.qut.edu.au/18476/ accessed 29 June 2009.

Hart, J. (2009). What is Social Learning? SlideShare presentation http://www.c4lpt.co.uk/sociallearning/sociallearning.html accessed 29 June 2009.

Hirst, T. (2009). They Put Silage in Silos, Don’t They? So Feed Me. Invited paper EdMedia World Conference, Hawaii, June 2009 http://www.aace.org/conf/edmedia/speakers/hirst.htm accessed 29 June 2009.

Information Architect Blog (2009). Web Trend Map 4. Article (On-line/Unpaginated) http://informationarchitects.jp/wtm4/ accessed 29 June 2009.

Information Architect Blog (2007). Web Trend Map 2007 Version 2.0. Article (On-line/Unpaginated) http://informationarchitects.jp/ia-trendmap-2007v2/ accessed 29 June 2009.

Lin, S-K (2009). Full Open Access Journals Have Increased Impact Factors. Molecules 2009, 14(6), 2254-2255 http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/14/6/2254/ accessed 29 June 2009.

Lyons, K. (2009). A Fourth Age of Sports Institutes. SlideShare presentation http://www.slideshare.net/Postillion/a-fourth-age-of-sports-institutes accessed 29 June 2009.

Lyons, K. (2008). IASI in Canberra. Article (On-line/Unpaginated) https://keithlyons.wordpress.com/2008/08/12/iasi-in-canberra-2009/ accessed 29 June 2009.

Marin, A. & Wellman, B. (2009). Social Network Analysis: An Introduction. Book Chapter (forthcoming) http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman/publications/newbies/newbies.pdf accessed 29 June 2009.

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Rheingold, H. (2009). Social Media Classroom/ Co-laboratory. Screencast http://vlog.rheingold.com/index.php/site/video/social-media-classroom-co-laboratory-screencast1/ accessed 29 June 2009.

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Siemens, G. (2008b). Who is still participating? Article (On-line/Unpaginated) http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/connectivism/?p=182 accessed 29 June 2009.

Siemens, G. (2004).  Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Article (On-line/Unpaginated) http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm accessed 29 June 2009.

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Vesper, S. (2009). Wikis Overview. Wiki http://learningweb2.wikispaces.com/Wikis+Overview accessed 29 June 2009.

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Wedel, M. (2009). Blogs, papers and the brave new digital world.: Matt’s thoughts. Article (On-line/Unpaginated) http://svpow.wordpress.com/2009/06/11/blogs-papers-and-the-brave-new-digital-world-matts-thoughts/ accessed 29 June 2009.

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Wesch, M. (2007).  Web 2.0 … The Machine is Us/ing Us. You Tube video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmP4nk0EOE&feature=channel accessed 29 June 2009.

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Hyperlinks

Social networks

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_networks

IACSS

http://www.iacss.org/index.php?id=29

IJCC

http://www.iacss.org/index.php?id=30

Larry Katz

http://www.strc.ucalgary.ca/katz/index.html

Christoph Igel

http://www.sportwissenschaft.de/index.php?id=275

PDF

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDF

Email

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Email

University of Calgary

http://www.ucalgary.ca/

Universitat des Saarlands

http://www.uni-saarland.de/index.php

Chief Learning Officer Award

http://www.uni-saarland.de/campus/fakultaeten/zentrale-einrichtungen/competence-center-virtuelle-saar-universitaet/aktuelles/1-preis-clo.html

Creative Commons

http://creativecommons.org/

Creative Commons video

http://creativecommons.org/videos/a-shared-culture/

Brewster Kahle

http://www.archive.org/about/bios.php#brewster

John Willinsky

http://pkp.sfu.ca/history

Worldwide Web

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet

Wikipedia

http://www.wikipedia.org/

Web 1.0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_1.0

Web 2.0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0

European Future Internet Portal

http://www.future-internet.eu/home.html

European Future Internet Portal video

http://www.future-internet.eu/publications/media.html#c140

Sports Technology Research Labratory

http://www.strc.ucalgary.ca/index.html

Competence Center Virtuelle

http://www.uni-saarland.de/campus/fakultaeten/zentrale-einrichtungen/competence-center-virtuelle-saar-universitaet.html

IASI Congress

https://secure.ausport.gov.au/conferences/iasi

Wiki

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki

CCK08

http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/connectivism/

Social Media Classroom

http://www.socialmediaclassroom.com/

Digital Ethnography, Kansas State University

http://mediatedcultures.net/ksudigg/

CCK08 Google Tag

http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=CCK08+tag&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8

CCK08 del.icio.us Tag

http://delicious.com/tag/cck08

Elluminate

http://www.elluminate.com/

Ustream TV

http://www.ustream.tv/

Blip TV

http://blip.tv/

The Daily

http://connect.downes.ca/

CCK08 Moodle

http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/moodle/course/view.php?id=20

Digifolios

http://digifolios.ning.com/

Connectivism, Education and Learning

http://connectivismeducationlearning.ning.com/

Open University Platform

http://ouseful.wordpress.com/2008/11/28/ou-goes-social-with-platform/

Mashable

http://mashable.com/

Clyde Street

https://keithlyons.wordpress.com/

Innovative Ideas 09 Forum

http://www.nla.gov.au/initiatives/meetings/innovative-ideas-forum/2009/

Twitter

http://twitter.com

IACSS09 Ning Site

http://iacss09.ning.com/

Ning Language Editor

http://iacss09.ning.com/main/language/list

Ning Import Language File

http://iacss09.ning.com/main/language/upload

IACSS09 Ning Membership

http://iacss09.ning.com/profiles/members/

International Coalition of Library Consortia

http://www.library.yale.edu/consortia/

International Coalition of Library Consortia Statement

http://www.library.yale.edu/consortia/icolc-econcrisis-0109.htm

Association of Research libraries

http://www.arl.org/

Harvard Press Statement

http://www.gse.harvard.edu/blog/news_features_releases/2009/06/harvard-graduate-school-of-education-votes-open-access-policy.html

Universite de Geneve Statement

http://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/outils/Directive_Archive_ouverte_UNIGE.pdf

Roejhampton University Statement

http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/fullinfo.php?inst=Roehampton University

Public Knowledge Project

http://pkp.sfu.ca/about

Internet Archive

http://www.archive.org/index.php

Ning paper alert

http://iacss09.ning.com/profiles/blogs/open-and-connected-communities

WebCite

http://www.webcitation.org/

WebCite Enhanced Reference

http://www.webcitation.org/#How_look

CERN (2009)

http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=48321

AACE (2009)

http://www.aace.org/conf/edMedia/


2 Comments

Social Media Sharing

I have been posting some #worldcup updates to Twitter this week. In passing I have accessed a number of links to social media resources through the serendipity of being online at just the right time. A read of Danny Brown’s 52 Cool facts About Social Media started my journey.

I delighted in finding these resources to grow my awareness of social media (driven partly by research for a paper on cloud computing and coaching).

Aggregations of Social Media Links and Guides

Jane Hart shared a great introductory guide to Social Media this week. I am constantly in awe of her awareness of social media and her energy in sharing her discoveries. This week she notes that “This is a social resource as it also provides the opportunity for you to provide your own experiences of using social tools for learning”. This is the link to the contents page of the guide.

I caught up with Darcy Moore’s Prezi presentation on Cool Online Tools too. I enjoyed reading his reflections on personal learning environments in education. “Year 11 will have virtually no opportunity, in their day at school, to use a computer or the many tools available online. During this presentation, I acknowledged that the student delegates will just have to use all this stuff at home. One kid pointed out, that even if they had DERNSW laptops, software could not be installed and many of the sites, especially social media and collaboration tools, would be blocked anyway. I was surprised at how little they knew of the tools discussed. The students were unfamiliar with all the tools, except iGoogle.”

Personal Learning Environments

David Hopkins’ post (from December 2009) shares a collection of PLE diagrams. his own is included:

I liked Skip’s video Personal Learning networks for Educators and thought it was an excellent introduction made all the better by creative editing.

After viewing Skip’s video I followed up on the The Educator’s PLN Ning site.

EduFeeder

At the end of the week, Stephen Downes’ OLDaily led me to Teemu Leinonen’s fascinating post about the EduFeedr project (an educationally enhanced feed reader for blog-based courses). Teemu’s blog post provides some background to this project:

In spring 2008 the authors organized a course on composing free and open educational resources (in the Wikiversity). It was officially a master’s course at the University of Art and Design Helsinki. The authors decided to make the course available with an open enrollment through the Wikiversity and promoted it in their blogs. As a result about 70 people from 20 countries signed up for the course on the Wikiversity page.

The course was organized as a weekly blogging seminar. In each week the facilitators posted a weekly theme and links to related readings on the course blog. The participants reflected on the weekly theme in their personal blogs and commented their peers.

One of the challenges in a large blog-based course is to follow all the communication. Typically this communication takes place not only in blogs but also in other environments such as Delicious, Twitter, etc. Most of these environments provide RSS feeds but typical RSS readers are not very suitable for following this kind of courses. Most of the RSS readers such as Google Reader are designed for personal use. In a Wikiversity course it would be important to have a shared feed reader that all the participants could use.

EduFeedr is a web-based feed reader that is designed specifically for following and supporting learners in open blog-based courses. The design process of EduFeedr is based on the research-based design methodology. We have organized several Wikiversity courses where we have tried out various online tools to manage the course. The initial user needs for EduFeedr came out from this contextual inquiry. Interaction design methods such as scenario-based design, user stories and paper prototyping have been used in the process.

I wondered what role Livefyre might play in stimulating other types of conversation in blog based courses. I think it my have a role to play as another communication channel and I have signed up for the Beta version scheduled for launch on 14 July. From the Livefyre blog:

Livefyre is an embeddable live commenting and conversation platform that turns comment sections into live conversations, increases the quality of those conversations, and drives traffic to content around the web. Livefyre is introducing a number of firsts into the conversation ecosystem, including conversation check-ins, real-time game mechanics, and a revolutionary moderation and reputation system. The Livefyre platform quickly and easily replaces legacy commenting systems on any site.

Publishing

Dodie Ainslie shared a wide range of links and resources this week in her discussion of student publishing sites. This post is part of a wider series of posts about Writing Digitally.

Twitter

EduDemic provides a guide to the 30 newest ways to use Twitter in the classroom. Later in the week Sue Waters published her Twitterholic’s guide to tweets, hashtags and all things Twitter. Sue, like Jane Hart, has a wonderful way to share ideas and practice. Her advice is “for those of you who have heard of twitter and have dismissed it thinking ‘”Twitter is for people with too much time on their hands” — think again :) Educators are connecting with each other on Twitter and using it like a big teachers lunch room that’s open 24/7 whenever they need help, assistance or just want to connect with others.”

Foursquare

I have been slow on the uptake of Foursquare. This week I found a guide that might help me in a post on the Accredited Online Colleges blog. The post observes that “Unlike other social networks, Foursquare encourages people to get out and enjoy their city by sharing check-ins, tips and to-dos while earning points and badges as they explore new venues and favorite hang-outs. Foursquare can also be used in education, though, for online students, lower education teachers, and in campus communities.” Thanks to this post I have 30+ ways to build my practice. A colleague is helping me with this uptake.

Bibliographic Tool

This Zotero Guide for undergraduates jumped out at me.

Cloud Opportunities

I mentioned at the start of this post that I have been writing up a paper on cloud computing and coaching. This is the abstract of my paper, Cloud Computing and Ubiquitous Support for Coaches:

Cloud computing is transforming the ways in which coaches work with athletes and enrich their own professional development. Cloud computing enables “convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction” (NIST, 2009). The pace of change in cloud computing is such that many coaches need access to and the support of educational technologists to manage their engagement with the opportunities the Internet provides. This paper presents examples of coaches’ use of cloud computing.  It explores how the openness of the cloud raises risk management issues for providers of institutional networks. The paper concludes with a discussion of the transformation of cloud resources by coaches through the use of iterative ‘good enough’ approaches to digital repositories (Lund, 2009).

References for the abstract:

Lund, T.B. (2009). Standards and Interoperability. http://edrene.org/results/deliverables/EdReNeD4.3TSR_Standards_and_interoperability.pdf Accessed 8 March 2010.

NIST (2009). NIST Definition of Cloud Computing v 15. http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/index.html Accessed 8 March 2010.

Each week I am aware of the enormous opportunities to learn about and share experiences of social media. This week I have accessed Twitter more than usual to post links to my World Cup analysis. I realise that the items noted here are a very small part of a weekly sharing that goes on in and through social media tools.

Photo Credit

How fast do you want to go?